41 • Classification parameters -IBP & FP • Characterization -Initial and Ongoing • NO ONE CANNOT CLASSIFY CRUDE by API Gravity !!!. [email protected]/60 ºF API gravity Total sulphur. A summary of classic petroleum characterization schemes is discussed below. The first three categories are base oils refined from petroleum crude oil. 0, has an API gravity of 10 degrees, while our 0. Petroleum refineries convert crude oils and other input streams into dozens of refined (co)products. Crude oil is a form of hydrocarbon, but did you know that there are different types of this oil. , less than 870 kg/m 3). API Gravity is the oil industry standard used to determine and classify the density of oil. 9 million barrels per day (b/d) in the first half of this year – an increase of 966,000 b/d over the same period in 2018. 055 Acetic acid anhydride (CH. of crude oil (average) 1 ton of oil equivalent = appr. @article{osti_191819, title = {Classification of crude oils produced by in situ combustion}, author = {Ryabov, V. The petroleum labs test to the "Recommended NYMEX Quality Parameters", as proposed by the Crude Oil Quality Association , and many other crude oil tests and analytical techniques. According to this scheme, process piping is divided into four general classes with a separate category for injection locations. The higher the API number, expressed as degrees API or degrees API, the less dense (lighter, thinner) is the crude. Crude Oils are classified based on their API gravity. Crude oils are also defined in terms of API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity. ° Classification of Crude Oil: Sulfur Content. Strensiq Drug Insight, 2019 highlights the drug marketed details and the Global API Manufacturers. An API gravity between 10. American Petroleum Institute gravity degree (°API) °API reflects how dense or viscous a crude oil is compared to water. Bulk Composition API gravity and sulphur content are whole oil properties as determined in the refinery. Don't Let Your Crude Oils Grow Up to be Condensates - API Creep in the Eagle Ford Wednesday, 02/20/2013 Published by: Sandy Fielden Last week (February 2013) EOG Resources told analysts that most Eagle Ford oil production should be classified as condensate rather than crude oil. Laboratory results have confirmed the sweet crude oil from this zone is 28. In the present work, four trace metals, V, Ni, Cu and Fe, have been determined in five crude oil samples of Eastern Baghdad area, Iraq by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Physical and Chemical Properties of Crude Oil and Oil Products 1- Density, Specific Gravity, and API Gravity Density is defined as mass per unit volume of a fluid. The measurement that we care most about today is viscosity since that is the property which governs well productivity. Heavy crude oil has an API gravity below 22. Sweet vs Sour Crude. All crude oil and/or condensate purchased shall be of merchantable quality, unaltered and. oil above has an API gravity of 35 degrees; almost all crude oils are lighter than water and so they will have higher API gravities. This report assembles AFPM member responses to questions posed by DOT and provides summary data on Bakken crude oil characteristics and hazards based on the sample information collected. 5EC)] - 131. , 920 to 1000 kg/m 3). What is Petroleum? Geol373 Terminology Petroleum Hydrocarbons (mostly H, C, bits of S, N, 0) Gas Natural Gas Condensate Liquids Oil, Crude oil Plastic Asphalt, Tar Solids Kerogen- Insoluble in organic solvents Bitumen-Soluble Coal Units Liquid Volume: 1 oil barrel= 42 gallons =0. In general, viscosity characteristics are predictable. However, there are three primary sources of crude oil. The results show that Bakken crude oil may appropriately be classified as a. Crude oil properties are estimated from crude oil analysis and are used for exploration, development, production and sales of crude oil as follows: (1) Density : Used in crude oil classification, weight and volume conversion. 1 °API (less than 870 kg/m³). Nigerian Lite Crudeoil Specification And Procedures BONNY LITE CRUDEOIL (BLCO) is a high grade of Nigerian crude oil with high API gravity (low specific gravity). Brent Crude is extracted from the North Sea and comprises Brent Blend,. Crude oil containing low amounts of sulfur (0. API gravity of Mishrif crude oil of studied area is ranging from (15. It is defined as the absolute vapor pressure exerted by a liquid at 100 °F (37. The Basics of Crude Oil Classification Liquid petroleum pumped from oil wells is called “crude” or “crude oil. Rana ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) by addition of light paraffin in crude oil or residue. [7-8] In petroleum technology, API gravity (American Petroleum Institute) is commonly used to. wt% Pour point, ºC [email protected] ºF,cSt. 3°, or further "upgraded" to an API gravity of 31. Prices for oil apply to quantities measured by approved automatic custody transfer facilities or 100% tank table with customary adjustment of volume and gravity for temperature and full deduction for sediment and water. Above 45 degrees the molecular chains become shorter and less valuable to refineries. Note that validity of the compressibility regarding the bubble point pressure (there are some other limitations that I haven't listed but are not directly applicable given the information you have already provided). Both a crude oil's viscosity and its API (American Petroleum Institute) degree are important classification parameters. 79 Acetaldehyde CH 3 CHO 68 20 0. This classification essentially is based on the properties exhibited by the crude oil, including: • Physical properties, such as API gravity of the stock-tank liquid. There are a number of legal quirks in the application of the crude oil definition, but one of the most challenging is the application of the regulations to condensate, a mix of hydrocarbons lighter than crude oil (i. 1 °API (less than 870 kg/m³). Crude Oil Regions; Paraffinic Crude VS Naphthenic Crude; Crude Oil Classification; Crude Oil: Paraffinic, Naphthenic, or Mixed Base? Saturated and Unsaturated Molecules; API Base Oil Categories; Base Oil Groups; Base Oil Types; API Service Classifications; Nine Common Additives; Seven Common Places for Additives; The Difference Between. Crude oil gravity may range from less than 10API to over 50API but most crudes fall in the 20. an API gravity of 11 to 30 degrees), depending on refiner crude slate requirements and the refined. , less than 870 kg/m 3). Orr (1986, 2001) has shown that the API gravity versus S. The API gravity for Bonny Light is 35 degrees and the sulfur content is 0. Liquids lighter than water, such as oil, have API gravities numerically greater than 10. Crude Oil means hydrocarbon liquid that remains in liquid form under storage conditions. from clear to black. Viscosity — The density of crude oil as measured on the API gravity scale; Crude oil benchmarks are the basis of an organized investment market in oil. Light crude oil is defined as having an API gravity higher than 31. Crude oil will fluoresce with a color and intensity characteristic of its density. 1 Classification as a Hydrocarbon Resource 2. 159] API gravity classifications and grades. Orr (1986, 2001) has shown that the API gravity versus S. As a result, producers have suffered an immediate reduction in crude oil receipts because first pur-. The American Petroleum Institute (API) designates several types of lubricant base oil:. Classifications of Crude Oil. LNG and Crude Tanker Rate Projections. 24 percent of sulphur (making a "sweet" crude oil). API Gravity: an inverted scale for denoting the “lightness” or “heaviness” of crude oils. Crude oils are classified from light to heavy based on the API gravity scale and are classified as sweet if they contain less than 0. With an API gravity of 38. " There are four classifications of API gravity: light crude oils, medium oils, heavy, and extra heavy. crude oil exports rose to average 2. The initial distribution of phases depends on depth, temperature, pressure, composition, historical migration, type of geological trap, and reservoir heterogeneity (that is, varying rock properties). If an oil's API Gravity is greater than 10, it is lighter than water and will float on it. the density of water. API published the volume correction factor calculation in the Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (MPMS), designated as Chapter 11. 1° Medium oil has an API gravity between 22. CITGO Regular Gear Oil is made from high quality mineral oil and selected inhibitors. API gravity is inversely proportional. The true average vapor. • API measure crude tendency to float on water, flow freely at a room temperature in relation to its viscosity. The various components are designed to give Platts subscribers as much information as possible about a wide range of methodology and specification issues. Although classifications are present, these vary in many aspects. It is linked to the crude's specific gravity, which corresponds to the crude's density relative to the same volume of. 15-25 Orange. It means, this high API gravity shows that crude oil has low density and can freely flows at room temperature. They make up a second primary constituent of crude oil. What is Petroleum? Geol373 Terminology Petroleum Hydrocarbons (mostly H, C, bits of S, N, 0) Gas Natural Gas Condensate Liquids Oil, Crude oil Plastic Asphalt, Tar Solids Kerogen- Insoluble in organic solvents Bitumen-Soluble Coal Units Liquid Volume: 1 oil barrel= 42 gallons =0. API Base Oil Classification Notes — 1 mPa-s = 1 cP; 1mm 2 /s=1cSt (2) All values, with the exception of the low-temperature cranking viscosity, are critical specifications as defined by ASTM D3244 (see text, Section 7). * API value is inversely relative with specific weight. of crude oil with 7. Measured values for the crude oils were generally higher at the 486. Using oil sands ores mined or extracted from Utah’s Asphalt Ridge area, the Company has the ability – at its Asphalt Ridge facility – to produce a crude oil that can range between a heavier oil and a medium oil in its specific gravity (i. It fuels thermal power stations or robust engines. Classification and composition of the three used crude oils: South Louisiana Crude Oil (SLCO), Arabian Light Crude Oil (ALCO) and Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO). API Gravity is the oil industry standard used to determine and classify the density of oil. Data, extracted from Figure 2A (1), was regressed to obtain the algorithm presented as Equation 3 for FPS units: Equation 4 for SI units. 1) Action Item: New policy guidance in the form of “Frequently Asked Questions” was published by the Commerce Department on December 20, 2014, with regard to crude oil export controls. , less than 870 kg/m 3). 85 mg of salt per litre of crude oil. 42%sulphur (NYMEX). If an oil's API Gravity is less than 10, it is heavier than water and will sink. Group IV base oils are full synthetic (polyalphaolefin) oils. 1 °API (less than 870 kg/m³). of crude oil with 7. Other crude oils are often priced based on the agreed upon benchmark crude which has a. 0 degrees and 22. [email protected]/60 ºF API gravity Total sulphur. The Basics of Crude Oil Classification Liquid petroleum pumped from oil wells is called “crude” or “crude oil. The degree of the hazard is determined essentially by volatility and flash point. Medium oil is defined as having an API gravity between 22. Heavy crude oil: It has API gravity lower than 22. The very low sulfur content of Bonny Light crude makes it a highly desired grade for its low cohesiveness to refinery infrastructure and the lower environmental impact of its by. The first, Brent Crude, is a mixture that comes from 15 different oil. The delivery locations are usually sea ports close to the oil fields from which the crude was obtained (and new fields are constantly being explored), and the pricing is usually quoted based on FOB ( free on board , without consideration of. Crude oil is divided into four categories based on its API gravity: Light Crude Oil - API gravity > 31. API developed a specific gravity scale called the API Gravity that determines the heaviness of crude oil. This measurement process is used throughout the chain of custody to determine and confirm the amount of crude oil transferred from the beginning to the end of the process. Light crude oil has an API gravity greater than 31. API gravity is a measure of the density of hydrocarbon fluid that has been used widely for long period of time. 5 Light Crude Oil >31 Mixed Based 22-31 Heavy crude <22 API is a major factor for Crude pricing BS&W Base sediments and Water determined by Karl Fischer titration using a Met Rohm 701 KF Automatic Titrator (ASTM D 4377) or by Distillation method, ASTM D4006 Oils with significant water contents. Crude oil with low content of sulfur means 'sweet' and the presence of high content sulfur is known as 'sour'. Brent Crude is a major trading classification of sweet light crude oil that serves as a major benchmark price for purchases of oil worldwide. Strensiq Drug Insight, 2019 highlights the drug marketed details and the Global API Manufacturers. The measuring scale is calibrated in terms of degrees API. Lighter grades of crude oil are easier and cheaper to refine. Genetic programming, as a powerful method, was implemented on a set of 137 crude oil data and acceptable correlations were achieved. Light crude oil has an API gravity higher than 31°API, medium crude between 22°API and 31°API, and heavy crude an API gravity below 22°API. , less than 870 kg/m 3). Meter Factor (MF): Dimensionless term established by proving and used to correct the indicated volume of a meter to its actual metered volume. Volatile crude oil If quality lines are close together near the bubble-point and are more widely spaced at lower pressures. The true average vapor. API Gravity API Gravity API =(141. It is a heavy crude oil, with a gravity of around 25º API. However, there are three primary sources of crude oil. The Brain VGS Vertical Gravity Separator is a pact cost effective unit developed to separate nonemulsified oil and water Simple to install operate and maintain a VGS can achieve the necessary water quality for discharge to water authority standards while oil and low density waste solids can be profitably reclaimed or recycled. 1 degrees API. Gravity API Definition Gravity ≠Viscosity The term "Heavy Oil" is a reference to the high density (API Gravity) of those oils. ►Using the following formula, API gravity can also be used to calculate how many barrels of crude oil can be produced per metric ton. 30% m/m GHANA Key Properties Sankofa Ten Blend Jubilee API Gravity @ 60 °F 28. Viscosity is not synonymous with Gravity. API Gravity is the oil industry standard used to determine and classify the density of oil. Varieties of crude oil and Classifications of crude oil There are many various kinds of crude oil and Classifications of crude oil is based on the geographical locations, sulfur content and relative weight however the foremost classification is completed based mostly on the location, as the oil comes from numerous components of the world and. Buzzard is sour but is not otherwise poor in quality. 1 Classification as a Hydrocarbon Resource 2. a common measure of the volatility of an oil. Low density, high gravity oils are light yellow to gold in color and have bright gold, white, or blue-white fluorescence. Medium – Medium crude oil has an API gravity that ranges between 22. 6 to model a crude tower system consisting of: Crude Oil Preheat Train Atmospheric Crude Tower Vacuum Crude Tower Debutanizer to stabilize the overhead naphtha stream from the Atmospheric Crude Tower. Currently, he is Executive Director of the Crude Oil Quality Association. Crude oil quality is measured in terms of density and divided into four groups namely,: light, medium, heavy and. 46%w, which is similar to other North Sea grades such as Brent or Clair, but much less than mainstream sour grades like Urals. The crude oil will be added to a known quantities of a volatile model oil mixture to form a new test mixture. If something is 7. Let us take a look at the various classifications for crude oil in the following. have been applied on every type of crude Classification of crude oil is based upon the difference in. 1 °API (less than 870 kg/m³). 37% of sulfur, this blend of crude oil comes from 15 various oil fields in the North Sea. Below is an overview of the four major crude oil classifications: Light crude oil. the density of water. * API value is inversely relative with specific weight. Don’t Let Your Crude Oils Grow Up to be Condensates – API Creep in the Eagle Ford Wednesday, 02/20/2013 Published by: Sandy Fielden Last week (February 2013) EOG Resources told analysts that most Eagle Ford oil production should be classified as condensate rather than crude oil. Distribution of n-alkanes, and isoprenoids pristine and phytane in crude oil samples from Shushan basin. It covers foundational oil analysis information including oil sampling, lubricant health monitoring, contamination measurement and control, and wear debris monitoring. 79 Acetaldehyde CH 3 CHO 68 20 0. 1 API Gravity (Density) The density of a crude oil indicates how light or heavy it is, as a whole. •The specific gravity or density of the liquid is needed to convert from mass to volume and vice versa. crude oil) and are based in part on empirical data. Sample H-3, have lower API° gravity than samples H-1, H-2 and H-4. The first three groups are refined from petroleum crude oil. 0 (less than 10 API) for heavy crude oil and bitumen. It is converted from specific gravity by the following equation: Degrees API gravity = 141. hydrocarbons with an API gravity different from 35°API. Following quotes are taken from Wikipedia page API gravity: "API Gravity is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is compared to water: if its API gravity is greater than 10, it. The selection and scheduling of crude oil feed to a refinery is a highly specialised field in its own right, (1). Light crude oil is defined as having an API gravity higher than 31. + Calculate the specific gravity from API gravity + Calculate the Barrels of crude oil per metric ton from API Gravity or select a fluid from the preloaded fluids database to perform the calculation + Find the classification of oil according to API gravity (Light oil, Medium oil, Heavy oil or Exra heavy oil) The database has the available. " 800-1000 kg/m 3: England, Mackenzie, Mann & Quigley. It can be diluted with lighter hydrocarbons to produce diluted bitumen , which has an API gravity of less than 22. ↑ Note: In the United States, the amount of inorganic salts in a crude oil is expressed as pounds per thousand barrels and abbreviated as PTB. API Gravity API Gravity API =(141. Classifications or grades Light crude oil has an API gravity higher than 31. Above 45 degrees the molecular chains become shorter and less valuable to refineries. Heavy crude oil: It has API gravity lower than 22. Of the world’s known <20°API oil, the large deposits of Canada. Crude oil quality is measured in terms of density and divided into four groups namely,: light, medium, heavy and. With an API gravity of 38. The lower the API gravity, the heavier the oil and more difficult to. Tables 7-1 and 7-2 show projected crude oil and natural gas production for the Gulf Coast and Southwest EIA Regions, as well as the combined total for both regions, from 2015 through 2040. 1 shows the effect of crude oil characterization factor on dead oil viscosity. If too much oil accumulates in the receiving and middle chambers, it may flow into the wastewater outlet chamber and end up being discharged to the environment. 2) Start with ONRR assumptions of crude oil type based on API gravity, and then ask companies to address exceptions. What is Petroleum? Geol373 Terminology Petroleum Hydrocarbons (mostly H, C, bits of S, N, 0) Gas Natural Gas Condensate Liquids Oil, Crude oil Plastic Asphalt, Tar Solids Kerogen- Insoluble in organic solvents Bitumen-Soluble Coal Units Liquid Volume: 1 oil barrel= 42 gallons =0. The delivery locations are usually sea ports close to the oil fields from which the crude was obtained (and new fields are constantly being explored), and the pricing is usually quoted based on FOB ( free on board , without consideration of. The most widely used definition for heavy oils is based on the API gravity1 proposed by the American Petroleum Institute, which uses the oAPI scale (index that is based on the oil relative density) as the criterion for oil classification. Crude oil consists of a complex mixture ofhydrocarbons of various molecular weights plus other chemical compounds. In the present work, four trace metals, V, Ni, Cu and Fe, have been determined in five crude oil samples of Eastern Baghdad area, Iraq by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Andreas Pehl Senior Application Engineer EagleBurgmann Germany Wolfratshausen, Germany Michael Szwarz Mechanical Engineer TransCanada Corp. Both corrections have been applied to this table. Both a crude oil's viscosity and its API (American Petroleum Institute) degree are important parameters for classification. Generally speaking, oil with an API gravity between 40 and 45 commands the highest prices. taxation regimes, even though the deposits, the crude oil properties, and the extractive methods are perhaps identical. PROCESS DESIGN OF CRUDE OIL ELECTROSTATIC. The degree of the hazard is determined essentially by volatility and flash point. 5 API Gravity 2. In the case of oil sand hydrocarbons, also called extra heavy oil, the API gravity can register as low as 10 (2-4 for ultra heavy oil). Both a crude oil’s viscosity and its API (American Petroleum Institute) degree are important classification parameters. Classification and composition of the three used crude oils: South Louisiana Crude Oil (SLCO), Arabian Light Crude Oil (ALCO) and Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO). The API gravity of a particular crude is merely a measure of its specific gravity, or density. Brent Crude. It is also used to produce a variety of other products including the pricing of Crude Oil. Due to its low sulfur content, Talakan crude oil can be processed via two schemes: the fuel scheme (obtaining light fractions and heavy fractions as fuel oil) or the base oil scheme (obtaining light fractions and. Of the world’s known <20°API oil, the large deposits of Canada. Crude Oil means hydrocarbon liquid that remains in liquid form under storage conditions. 3° Generally speaking, oil with an API gravity between 40 and 45° commands the highest prices. 24 percent sulfur, which makes it a “sweet” crude oil. But it ain't true. Specific domestic crudes with 0. Prior to the advent of advanced drilling and extraction technologies, many U. The V/Ni ratios for the studied. Crude oil with low content of sulfur means 'sweet' and the presence of high content sulfur is known as 'sour'. Base of crude OA. It means, this high API gravity shows that crude oil has low density and can freely flows at room temperature. 1 Introduction 2. It is devised jointly by the American Petroleum Institute (hence, API) and NIST and expressed in degrees API. @article{osti_191819, title = {Classification of crude oils produced by in situ combustion}, author = {Ryabov, V. Mineral Oils. QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS OF CRUDE OIL COMPOSITION. 526 and typical output is around 540,000 barrels per day. 11 Pour Point 2. ↑ Note: In the United States, the amount of inorganic salts in a crude oil is expressed as pounds per thousand barrels and abbreviated as PTB. API gravity is a commonly used index of the density of a crude oil or refined products. Crude can be classified as "light" or "heavy," a characteristic which refers to the oil's relative density based on the American Petroleum Institute (API) Gravity. LNG and Crude Tanker Rate Projections. 8 Making heavy crude oil profitable Making heavy crude oil profitable 9 Savings throughout the process The X-Series centrifuges reduce many of the operational costs typically associated with heavy crude oil separation. There are three main classifications of oil based on API Gravity: Light crude oil: API gravity greater then 31. 5 Black Oil Tank Battery--the collection of process equipment used to separate, treat, store, and transfer streams from production wells primarily consisting of crude oil with little, if any, natural gas. 1 °API or higher. The government of Alberta, which produces most of the oil in Canada, disagrees and defines it as oil with a density less than 850 kg/m 3 (API gravity greater than 35° API) The Mexican state oil company, Pemex, defines light crude oil as being between 27° API (893 kg/m 3) and 38° API (835 kg/m 3). 5/SG) - 131. The viscosity of heavy oils is a critical property in predicting oil recovery (Mehrotra 1990) and selecting a production approach. Crude can be classified as “light” or “heavy,” a characteristic which refers to the oil’s relative density based on the American Petroleum Institute (API) Gravity. crude oil gets trapped in the pores of the underground rock and it’s extracted to make […]. Share this: Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window). API Gravity Definitions: Definition of API Gravity of water provided by WikiPedia : The American Petroleum Institute gravity, or API gravity, is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is compared to water. The selection and scheduling of crude oil feed to a refinery is a highly specialised field in its own right, (1). 0%), and a low sulfur content (0. 159] API gravity classifications and grades. Medium oil is defined as having an API gravity between 22. Almost every lubricant used in plants today started off as just a base oil. Light crude is the classification given to crude oil with an API gravity of 31. When crude oil is classified based on its API gravity it is divided into one of the following four classifications: Light - Light crude oil has an API gravity of 31. Sour: This is essentially a reference to the sulphur content within the oil. 3º 100 – 10,000 Oil Resources Extra Heavy Oil < 10º 100 – 10,000. Extra heavy crude oil is also. Crude oil can be characterized based on its physical and chemical properties. a common measure of the volatility of an oil. In the case of oil sand hydrocarbons, also called extra heavy oil, the API gravity can register as low as 10 (2-4 for ultra heavy oil). From these relationships, we can determine that fresh water, with a specific gravity of 1. 1 degrees falls into the light crude oil category. World crude-oil discovery rate averaged over five year periods 6a 4. Anything less than 10 is heavier and sinks. Crude Oil Regions; Paraffinic Crude VS Naphthenic Crude; Crude Oil Classification; Crude Oil: Paraffinic, Naphthenic, or Mixed Base? Saturated and Unsaturated Molecules; API Base Oil Categories; Base Oil Groups; Base Oil Types; API Service Classifications; Nine Common Additives; Seven Common Places for Additives; The Difference Between. Brent Crude is extracted from the North Sea and comprises Brent Blend,. Petroleum includes crude oil, natural gas, and heavy oil. Tank Truck Loading of Crude Oil or Condensate (Revised 11/13) APDG 6217 V2 Page 5 of 6 Sample Calculation: Annual Loading Losses The following example is based on truck loading 5,500,000 gallons of crude oil (RVP 5) at a loading rack. Distribution of n-alkanes, and isoprenoids pristine and phytane in crude oil samples from Shushan basin. 5EC)] - 131. For example, heavy crude oil has a specific gravity of 1. 159] API gravity classifications and grades. Light crude oil is defined as having an API gravity higher than 31. Yearly sales volume of TPAO is almost 13 MV which consist of 8MV Azeri and 5 MV Iraqi crude oil. The amount of basic sediment and water in the oil, a chemical analysis of the oil and shrinkage, and the API gravity should be determined. The current bbl/mt conversion factor for Bonny Light crude oil is 7. In addition, the list contains crude oils with a wide distribution of total sulphur content (0. Classification of hydrocarbons based on structure. That would make sense because light sweet crude oil requires less energy to refine. of crude oil with 7. We have the data water specific gravity, gas specific gravity and oil specific gravity separately, How to calculate the API gravity for crude oil based on these 3 values???. • Pressure-temperature phase diagram. Classification of Crude Oil and Its Derivatives Crude oil and its derivatives are potentially hazardous materials. If pressure falls below bubblepoint, the reser- voir contains two phases—oil and free. Alberta Oil & Gas Trading says, “There is no clear definition of the condensate. In this paper, three crude oils are used: 38º API, 26. , in fields widely used in sewage. There are a number of legal quirks in the application of the crude oil definition, but one of the most challenging is the application of the regulations to condensate, a mix of hydrocarbons lighter than crude oil (i. ( free on board , without consideration of final delivery costs). 4 Estimates by CRS based on data from Dagmar Etkin, Analysis of U. Crude oil is divided into four categories based on its API gravity: Light Crude Oil - API gravity > 31. In the metric system specific gravity is the same as in the English system. Galbraith, and R. Overall, this suggests that the average barrel of crude refined in the United States in 1995 yielded a shade over 100kg of liquid fuels (that’s an uncannily round number… 100. 42 percent) and trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide is called sweet crude. and Canadian crude oil production in recent years, coupled with the increase in crude oil transport by rail, has raised questions about whether properties (e. Medium – Medium crude oil has an API gravity that ranges between 22. The crude oil has a high asphaltene content and/or a low API gravity. 2) Start with ONRR assumptions of crude oil type based on API gravity, and then ask companies to address exceptions. The American Petroleum Institute Gravity, or API Gravity, is a measurement used to classify crude oil by density, which is determined by whether the crude oil will sink or float in. Oil is classified according to three main categories: the geographic location where it was drilled, its sulfur content and its API gravity. A Clean Waxy Crude: A clean waxy crude is defined as a crude oil in which there exist only hydrocarbons and wax as its only heavy organic constituent. FUEL CLASSIFICATION BY API GRAVITY PROCEDURES API gravity that is recorded on. , 870 to 920 kg/m 3) Heavy crude oil has an API gravity below 22. Current Crude Oil prices West Texas Intermediate ( WTI ) West Texas Intermediate, the US benchmark crude oil, is a light, sweet crude oil with an API gravity of approximately 40 and a sulfur content of approximately 0. Because all. Crude Oil Classifications Crude oil is often classified based on physical characteristics and chemical composition using the terms such as “sweet” or “sour”, “light” or “heavy” Two common metrics used for measuring crude oil is API gravity and sulfur content API (American Petroleum Institute) gravity is a measure of how heavy or. Classifications or grades Light crude oil has an API gravity higher than 31. relevant to classification and safe transport of Bakken crude oil is as follows: Property TSB AFPM API NDPC Initial Boiling Point ASTM D86 ( o C) oAvg o46. Meter Factor (MF): Dimensionless term established by proving and used to correct the indicated volume of a meter to its actual metered volume. , Canada, Europe,. Sankofa crude oil Yields & properties Sankofa crude oil is a medium density, low sulphur, intermediate crude, with low acidity and a low mercaptan content. If an oil’s API Gravity is greater than 10, it is lighter than water and will float on it. In general oils with API gravity of 40 – 45 generate the highest market prices. Genetic programming, as a powerful method, was implemented on a set of 137 crude oil data and acceptable correlations were achieved. Crude oil is classified as light or heavy oil based on different physical properties, such as molecular weight, viscosity, density, and API gravity. 5 API with a trace of contaminants and no hydrogen sulfide. In fact, in a letter to API, FRA enumerated concerns related to crude oil and informed industry that it would use PHMSA's test sampling program to ensure that crude oil is being properly tested and classified. The different types of crude oil are classified based on the American Petroleum Gravity (API) gravity and viscosity. Medium – Medium crude oil has an API gravity that ranges between 22. Oils with API gravity falling between 22. Other articles where American Petroleum Institute gravity scale is discussed: crude oil: …petroleum industry, however, uses the American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity scale, in which pure water has been arbitrarily assigned an API gravity of 10°. and Canadian crude oil production in recent years, coupled with the increase in crude oil transport by rail, has raised questions about whether properties (e. of crude oil with 7. Mineral oil.